What is Galileo's experiment??

       GALILEO'S EXPERIMENT

Experiment
EXPERIMENT

We have seen that an unbalanced force is needed to accelerate a body.But for long people believed that a force is needed to maintain the uniform motion of an object,and if no force acts on the object it would to rest .Many things we see around us mislead people into believing this.Let us see one such case.
Consider a ball moving on a horizontal table with some speed. Suppose we do not do anything to the ball, and just watch. We find that its speed decreases and it stops after some distance. It may appear that the ball is slowing down althrough no forces acting on it. However, that is not true. Althrough we have not applied any force on the ball there are other Agencies applying forces on it the table exerts a force of friction on the ball and it is this unbalanced force that is responsible for the slowing down of the ball if the table is made smooth the force of friction is reduced and the ball moves through a large distance imagine a situation in which we get rid of erection completely then the ball will continue to move without slowing down till it reaches the age of the table and drops of it was Galileo who recognised that a body moves with uniform velocity if no force acts on it for Galileo there was a General belief that a force is necessary to keep a body moving with uniform velocity Galileo arrived at the correct conclusion through a series of experiments and reasoning.
 one of his experiments involved observing the motion of ball rolling on an inclined plane (figure 3.6a) when A ball rolls down an incline d plane its speed increases whereas while rolling

Galileo's experiment
GALILEO'S EXPERIMENT
up an inclined plain the speed decreases what will happen if it goes on and horizontal plane the case is just in between the two situation described above the result must also be in between that is its speed should remain constant this can be explained as follows moving up speed decrease age moving down speed increases moving horizontally neither up nor down speed constant( neither decreases nor increases)
Galileo reached this conclusion in another way to considered a ball tied to one end of a string the other end of the string is fixed by a clamp if the ball is pulled to one side and released it will start swinging such a system is called simple pendulum figure (3.7a) it is observed that when the ball is released from a height its wings to the other side and stops momentarily enriching almost the same height from which it was released Galileo reasoned that the same would be true if no string is used and the ball is released on the inner surface of a smooth (frictionless) hemisphere it will move to the other side and reach the same as before coming to rest momentarily (figure 3.7b) be what will happen if the hemisphere is replaced by a surface shown in (figure 3.7c) in order to reach the same hide the ball has to travel through a large distance on other side this means it will stop after traveling a large distance as we go on tilting the other side towards the horizontal the ball has to cover large distances to reach the same height (figure 3.7d) if the other side is made horizontal (figure 3.7e) it will never stop because it will never be able to reach the same height this means it splits will not decrease and hence it will travel with uniform velocity on a horizontal surface.
Galileo's experiment
Galileo's experiment

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